Platinum Palladium prints indisputably are the most archival prints ever made.
Although difficult and costly to create, platinum prints are the sine qua non of photographic art. Over the years, the only obstacle to widespread enjoyment of platinum has been lack of access to this rare process. Once experienced, it is usually a visual revelation! And it is the visual value, the tremendous tonal range, that makes platinum prints so extraordinary.
Unlike the silver print process, platinum lies on the paper surface, while silver lies in a gelatin or albumen emulsion that coats the paper. As a result, since no gelatin emulsion is used, the final platinum image is absolutely matte with a deposit of platinum (and/or palladium, its sister element which is also used in most platinum photographs) absorbed slightly into the paper. In 1873, thirty-four years after Louis Daguerre in Paris and William Henry Fox Talbot in London presented the discovery of photography to the world, the platinum process of printing photographs was patented.
Since that time, platinum’s use in photography has had an almost unbroken continuity to the present day—being interrupted only by the World Wars. At the outbreak of World War I, platinum abruptly could no longer be obtained. Russia had almost 90 percent of the world’s supply; and what little platinum was available went into strategic needs of the war.
When peace was won, and as the world returned to normal, platinum was prominently resurrected by Alfred Stieglitz, who printed mostly on platinum and palladium papers. Platinum was also preferred by his young protégés Paul Strand and Clarence White. Edward Weston used platinum and palladium papers throughout his early, greatest period; Edward S. Curtis, Irving Penn, Manuel Alvarez Bravoand most of the greats in the history of photography have all produced perfect, beautiful images in platinum.
However, after World War II, few photographers immediately resumed the use of platinum, largely because commercially made, platinum-coated paper was not available. This meant that the photographer had to hand-coat the paper and, frankly, not many were willing to do so! In this part of the world, however, Laura Gilpin was among the few post-World War II photographers who did maintain the use of platinum, hand-coating her papers and creating images of the Southwest that would become legendary.
Although platinum was again obtainable after World War I, its price remained extremely high. The war thus also stimulated experimentation with palladium photography.
By the early 1900s it was understood that platinum was one of a family of “platinum metals”: the closely-related elements platinum,palladium,
Two aspects that make the platinum print so special, so loved by photographers and so treasured by collectors and investors are beauty and permanence. The unique beauty of a fine platinum print involves a broad scale of tones from black to white. The delicate, rich platinum tones range from warm black, to reddish brown, to expanded mid-tone grays that are unobtainable in silver prints. In the deepest shadows the platinum print still presents information; the platinum whites are delicate and the depth of the image is alive and three-dimensional.
Platinum prints are not only exceptionally beautiful, they are among the most permanent objects invented by human beings! The platinum metals (platinum and palladium) are more stable than gold. Incredibly, a platinum image, properly made, can last thousands of years. It is as enduring as steel or stone and will even outlive the fine paper it is printed upon.
In recent decades—with the appreciation of photography as an art, and its accelerating value as an investment to collectors—platinum is again in a renaissance among fine photographers.
Platinum printing is based on the light sensitivity of ferric oxalate. Ferric oxalate is reduced to ferrous oxalate by UV-light. The ferrous oxalate then reacts with platinum or palladium reducing it to elemental platinum palladium, which builds up the image.
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